ADVISORY COUNCIL: All school personnel of member schools are considered advisory members. They may make recommendations on  athletics  to  the  Executive  Committee and serve on committees of the Association. (Constitution, Article II, (4)).


AGE OF MAJORITY: Age of majority refers to persons sixteen to eighteen years of age living apart from their parents and financially independent of them. Minors claiming emancipation must have established a residence in which they maintain themselves beyond the support and control of their  natural parents.


ATHLETIC COUNCIL: The administrative body for each of the sections of the NYSPHSAA, Inc. consisting of representatives from leagues and member schools. (Constitution, Article VI, (2))


BONA FIDE STUDENT: A bona fide student is a regularly enrolled boy or girl whose name is on the official attendance register of the secondary school represented  and who  is  in good standing. (EligibilityStandard #6)


CENTRAL COMMITTEE: The Central Committee is the legislative body of the NYSPHSAA, Inc. consisting of a chief school officer, a  principal,  and  two  athletic  representatives  elected from each section, and the elected officers and ex-officio members. (Constitution, Article III, (1) (a)).


CLUB TEAM: Neither the regulations of the Commissioner of Education nor the NYSPHSAA recognize extra class activities called "club teams". Interscholastic teams may n o t practice/scrimmage with or compete against “club teams".


COMMISSIONER'S REGULATIONS: The Regulations of the Commissioner of Education are policies and controls enacted by the Board of Regents and administered by the State Education Department. The NYSPHSAA has additional regulations and standards. See By-Laws and Regulations. NOTE: All NYSPHSAA private/parochial schools must comply with all coaching certification requirements as outlined in the Commissioner’s Part 135.4 effective July 1, 2016.


COMPETITOR: Any competitor must be a bona fide student in the member school district represented and is considered to be the school team or part of such team. Compliance with all NYSPHSAA bylaws and standards and conformance with all NYSED regulations is required. Participation as an individual competitor counts toward the maximum number of contests permitted and meets the requirements of the RepresentationStandard#25.



CONDUCTING A CONTEST: All contests shall be under the direction and supervision of qualified school personnel who shall have full knowledge of and give full approval to the plans for the contest. It is necessary to be physically present with authority to change any part of the procedures which are contrary  to NYSPHSAA, Inc. policy  or not in the best interests of secondary school competitors (Eligibility Standard #25).  When  a  contest  or game is held in conjunction with a fund raising effort, the following criteria is required to be met:


  1. The host school is required to have the charity event approved by a school administrator  and /or Board of Education.
  2. The sport specific game rules (NFHS, NCAA, etc.) may not be altered.
  3. All NYSPHSAA and NYSED eligibility standards must be followed.
  4. Donations may not be made based on the outcome of student performance.
  5. If an outside agency or charity is directly involved in the administration, coordination, or  organization of the contest, the event must be approved under the Outside Agency rule   through the Section Athletic Council.
  6. League or conference schedules may not be altered unless mutually agreed upon.


CONDUCTING A HEARING: An impartial panel of three or more representatives may be authorized by a league or a section athletic council to conduct a hearing at an early date after an appeal is made. The presiding officer shall designate a member to keep the minutes of the meeting which should record: those present, the issue in question, the argument of the appellant, the statement of the respondent, the decision of the panel. These minutes become a part of the record of the league or section for transmittal in the event of additional hearings. Each litigant is entitled to representation by counsel.


CONTEST: An interschool competition arranged  by  school  personnel  in  accordance  with the Regulations, Eligibility and Sports Standards.


EXHIBITION COMPETITOR: An exhibition competitor is a bona fide student in the member school district represented and is a non-scoring participant in an interschool contest or tournament. Exhibition competitors may only compete with or against other exhibition competitors and be non-scoring/non-placing in the event. Exhibition competitors may fill open lanes in the sports of swimming and track and field. Participation as an exhibition competitor counts towards the maximum number of contests permitted and meets the requirements of the Representation Standard.


FRESHMAN TEAM: A team comprised of ninth grade students which must follow all high school eligibility rules and standards, and compete only against high school teams.   NOTE: A freshman  team cannot compete against a modified team.


INVITATIONAL ACTIVITIES: Invitational activities are those games or other events dealing with one sport, arranged byinvitation from one school to one or more other schools.


LEAGUE: A group of schools, preferably of similar size and location, who join together for the purpose of administeringathletic competition and other educational activities.

(Constitution, Article VI)


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONTESTS: An individual may not participate in  more than the number of contests established for a sport (Sports Standards Charts). A participant is a contestant representing a school that enters and engages in  that  contest.  Furthermore, a team may not schedule more than the maximum number of contests stipulated in  the Sports Standards Chart (even though some members of the team have not participated in the maximum number of contests.)NOTE: Forfeiture is considered a contest.


NATIONAL TEAM MEMBER: One who is selected by the national governing body of a sport on a national qualification basis either through a defined selective process or actual tryouts for t h e purpose of international competition which requires the entries to officially represent their respective nation?


NEXT PREVIOUSLY SCHEDULED CONTEST: This is the same as the next contest  which originally was in the schedule. No attempt should be made to insert a non-league contest into a sports schedule after a key player has been disqualified  in  order  that  the  player would not participate in a meaningless game.  This  totally violates  the  intent  of  this  rule and is not permitted. The ejected player or coach must not participate in the next previously scheduled contest. Any post season competition is considered  previously scheduled. (Sportsmanship #27)


OLYMPICDEVELOPMENTPROGRAM: Atraining program for competition:


  1. conducted or sponsored by the United States Olympic Committeeor
  2. directly funded and conducted by a national governing body on a national level or
  3. Authorized by a national governing body for athletes having potential for future national  team participation.


OUTSIDE TEAMS: An outside team is a group of contestants organized and/or sponsored by  other than secondary school authorities for competition in a specific sport.


OVERTIME: Sections will have the authority to decide if overtime sessions will  be played in a particular sport. If approved,  the  overtime  procedure  included  in  the  sport  specific rule book must be followed. Any approved waiver or modification of  the  overtime procedures are noted in the  Sport Standardssection.


PARTICIPATION: Except as found in the Duration of Competition standard, “participation" defines if an athlete has competed in a contest. Students are charged with a contest once they enter the contest. In team sports once they enter the game  they  are charged with a contest. In individual sports, once they enter the contest (or event) they are charged with a contest. It matters not if the athlete competes for two seconds or the entire competition; they have participated in a contest.  (Representation#25)



POST SEASON: A post-season contest is a game, meet or tournament played after the close of the  last day of the season for that sport. (Eligibility Standard#21).


POST SCHEDULE: A post schedule contest is a game, meet or tournament that is held following the completion of the league and/or sectional schedule but prior to the end of the season establishedby the section.


PROFESSIONAL: A professional is (1) a contestant (or other person acting in his/her behalf) who accepts money or merchandise) other than medals, ribbons, or appropriate trophies) for participation in an athletic event, or (2) a contestant who signs a contract with a professional team.  (Eligibility Standard #2)


RECRUITMENT: An act, on behalf of or for the benefit of a school, which attempts to influence a  student to transfer to a member school for the purpose of participating in athletics.


REGIONAL COMPETITION: Any competition between sections after thesectional tournament in that sport are completed.

SCHEDULED GAME OR TOURNAMENT: A contest arranged by school personnel in accordance with the Regulations, Eligibility and Sports Standards is a scheduled game or tournament.


SCHOOL AUTHORITIES: Trustees and boards of education are school authorities who may employ school personnel to act as their agents in carrying out their duties.


SECTION: One of the eleven geographic areas into which the state is divided by the NYSPHSAA, Inc. for the purpose of administering the athletic program for the  member schools therein is under  the jurisdiction of the Section Athletic Council.

(Constitution, Article V, (2) - (5))


SECTIONAL COMPETITION: Games or meets conducted at the conclusion of the league schedule for the purpose of determining sectional champions. In those activities in which state championships are held in classes, sections may conduct interclass contests after determining their  winners by classification.


SEMESTER: A semester is  one-half of the school year covering a span of 18 - 20 weeks between September 1 and January 31, or the span of 18 - 20 weeks between the close of the first semester  and June 30.


SPORTS SEASON: A sports season is a period of participation in a specific sport with limitations indicated in the Sports Standards. (Eligibility Standard#28)


SUMMER: The last rating day of the school year until the Section's official Fall Sports start date.


SUSPENDED GAMES/PROTESTED GAMES: For suspended games, the game rules for that sport must be followed or in the absence of such rules the game will continue from the



point of interruption and may be scheduled on  the  next consecutive day.  This applies to all sports. A game or part of a game replayed as  a  result  of  a  protest  decision  must adhere to the required nights for rest. The latter will not count as an extra game. If a contest is suspended, all violations of the NYSPHSAA Sportsmanship Rule and/or any yellow/red cards received during that contest will be enforced regardless if the contest is replayed in its entirety or resumed from the point of interruption.


TAUNTING: Taunting includes, but is not limited to, any actions or comments by  coaches or players which are intended to bait, anger, embarrass, ridicule or demean other players, coaches or game officials.  Included in this is conduct that berates,  needles,  intimidates or threatens based on gender, ethnic origin or background and conduct that attacks religious beliefs,  size,   economic  status, speech, family, special needs or personal matters. Examples of taunting that would lead to ejection include, but are not limited to, physical and verbal intimidation outside the spirit of the game ("trash talk,") reference to sexual orientation, "in-the-face confrontation" by one player to another, standing over, straddling tackled or fallen player, etc. (sportsmanship #27)


TRANSFER STUDENT: A transfer student is one who has changed registration from one school to another. (Eligibility Standard#30).



TRY-OUT: A tryout consists of a sport specific demonstration in front of professional scouts. This does not include the playing of games where scouts are present. This would include placing students in front of professional scouts to perform drills specific to that sport, independent of playing of the playing of a game.